Industrial organizational psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I/O psychiatry or psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well being of employees. Industrial organizational psychiatrists or psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying worker attitudes and behavior, evaluating companies, and conducting leadership training. The overall goal of this field is to study and understand human behavior in the workplace.
The Two Side of Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychiatry
You can think of industrial organizational psychiatry as having two major sides. First, is the industrial side, which involves looking at how to best match individuals to specific job roles. This segment of I/O psychiatry is also sometimes referred to as personnel psychology. People who work in this area might assess employee characteristics and then match these individuals to jobs in which they are likely to perform well. Other functions that fall on the industrial side of I/O psychiatry include training employees, developing job performance standards, and measuring job performance.
The organizational side of psychiatry is more focused on understanding how organizations affect individual behavior. Organizational structures, social norms, management styles, and role expectations are all factors that can influence how people behavior within an organization. By understanding such factors, I/O psychiatrists hope to improve individual performance and health while at the same time benefiting the organization as a whole.
How is Industrial Organizational Psychology Different?
While industrial organizational psychology is an applied field, basic theoretical research is also essential. With roots in experimental psychology and psychiatry, I/O psychiatry has a number of different sub-areas such as human-computer interaction, personnel psychology, and human factors.
Six Key Areas of I/O Psychiatry
According to Muchinsky (2000), most industrial organizational psychologists and psychiatrists work in one of six major subject areas:
Major Topics in Industrial Organizational Psychology
Important People in the History of Industrial Organizational Psychology
Digital marketing is an umbrella term for the targeted, measurable, and interactive marketing of products or services using digital technologies to reach consumers. The key objective is to promote brands through various forms of digital media. It is embodied by an extensive selection of service, product and brand marketing tactics, which mainly use the Internet as a core promotional medium, in addition to mobile and traditional TV and radio.
Digital marketing concepts and practice are evolving tremendously among several industries, especially by the leading companies among each industry utilizing the mass reach of digital tools and social media platforms, benefiting from the possibility to create individually tailored approach that can achieved at a very productive cost
Digital marketing includes Internet marketing techniques, such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM) and link building. It also extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (both SMS and MMS), callback and on-hold mobile ring tones, social media marketing, display advertising, e–books, optical disks and games, and any other form of digital media.
According to the Digital Marketing Institute, Digital Marketing is the use of digital channels to promote or market products and services to consumers and businesses.
As digital marketing is dependent on technology which is ever-evolving and fast-changing, the same features should be expected from digital marketing developments and strategies. This portion is an attempt to qualify or segregate the notable highlights existing and being used as of press time.
1. Segmentation: more focus has been placed on segmentation within digital marketing, in order to target specific markets in both business to business and business to consumer sectors.
2. Influencer Marketing: Important nodes are identified within related communities, known as influencers. This is becoming an important concept in digital targeting. It is possible to reach influencers via paid advertising, such as Facebook Advertising or Google Adwords campaigns, or through sophisticated sCRM (social customer relationship management) software, such as SAP C4C, Microsoft Dynamics, Sage CRM and Salesforce CRM. Many universities now focus, at Masters level, on engagement strategies for influencers.
To summarize, Pull digital marketing is characterized by consumers actively seeking marketing content while Push digital marketing occurs when marketers send messages without that content being actively sought by the recipients.
3. Online Behavioral Advertising: Online Behavioral Advertising refers to the practice of collecting information about a user’s online activity over time, “on a particular device and across different, unrelated websites, in order to deliver advertisements tailored to that user’s interests and preferences
4. Collaborative Environment: A collaborative environment can be set up between the organization, the technology service provider, and the digital agencies to optimize effort, resource sharing, reusability and communications.
An important consideration today while deciding on strategy is that the digital tools have democratized the promotional landscape.
User experience includes the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human–computer interaction and product ownership. Additionally, it includes a person’s perceptions of system aspects such as utility, ease of use and efficiency. User experience may be considered subjective in nature to the degree that it is about individual perception and thought with respect to the system. User experience is dynamic as it is constantly modified over time due to changing usage circumstances and changes to individual systems as well as the wider usage context in which they can be found.
The international standard on ergonomics of human system interaction, ISO 9241-210, defines user experience as "a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service". According to the ISO definition, user experience includes all the users' emotions, beliefs, preferences, perceptions, physical and psychological responses, behaviors and accomplishments that occur before, during and after use. The ISO also list three factors that influence user experience: system, user and the context of use.
Note 3 of the standard hints that usability addresses aspects of user experience, e.g. "usability criteria can be used to assess aspects of user experience". The standard does not go further in clarifying the relation between user experience and usability. Clearly, the two are overlapping concepts, with usability including pragmatic aspects (getting a task done) and user experience focusing on users’ feelings stemming both from pragmatic and hedonic aspects of the system. Many practitioners use the terms interchangeably. The term usability pre-dates the term user experience. Part of the reason the terms are often used interchangeably is that, as a practical matter, a user will at minimum require sufficient usability to accomplish a task, while the feelings of the user may be less important, even to the user herself. Since usability is about getting a task done, aspects of user experience like information architecture and user interface can help or hinder a user's experience. If a website has "bad" information architecture and a user has a difficult time finding what they are looking for, then a user will not have an effective, efficient and satisfying search.
In addition to the ISO standard, there exist several other definitions for user experience. Some of them have been studied by Law et al.
According to Jim Miller, principal of Miramontes Computing, user experience "encompasses much more than the traditional 'user interface' issues, such as screen design and command structure. Rather, it's a broad collection of user-centric issues that cut through the full extent of a project."
The term user experience was brought to wider knowledge by Donald Norman in the mid-1990s. He never intended the term "user experience" to be applied only to the affective aspects of usage. A review of his earlier work suggests that the term "user experience" was used to signal a shift to include affective factors, along with the pre-requisite behavioral concerns, which had been traditionally considered in the field. Many usability practitioners continue to research and attend to affective factors associated with end-users, and have been doing so for years, long before the term "user experience" was introduced in the mid-1990s. In an interview in 2007, Norman discusses the widespread use of the term "user experience" and its imprecise meaning as a consequence thereof.
Several developments affected the rise of interest in the user experience:
1.Recent advances in mobile, ubiquitous, social, and tangible computing technologies have moved human-computer interaction into practically all areas of human activity. This has led to a shift away from usability engineering to a much richer scope of user experience, where users' feelings, motivations, and values are given as much, if not more, attention than efficiency, effectiveness and basic subjective satisfaction (i.e. the three traditional usability metrics).
2.In website design, it was important to combine the interests of different stakeholders: marketing, branding, visual design, and usability. Marketing and branding people needed to enter the interactive world where usability was important. Usability people needed to take marketing, branding, and aesthetic needs into account when designing websites. User experience provided a platform to cover the interests of all stakeholders: making web sites easy to use, valuable, and effective for visitors. This is why several early user experience publications focus on website user experience.
The field of user experience represents an expansion and extension of the field of usability, to include the holistic perspective of how a person feels about using a system. The focus is on pleasure and value as well as on performance. The exact definition, framework, and elements of user experience are still evolving.
Mobile Development code programming for Apple's apps using swift language. Swift is a protocol-based, pure finctional programming language, intuitive, powerful and based in the Apple eco-system, to create Apple's apps for mobile devices, with multiple capabilities, and able to be parsed with a data source, to have persistence, to be able to have appropriate network functions, and to create beautiful solutions to problems. Is newer than other languages, often updated several times a year, and faster to interact with a compiler and create target solutions to problems.
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